(1) Axillary Breast
Occasionally breast tissue develops in the axillae (armpits)
producing an unnatural fullness adjacent to the upper and outer
breast. This is often quite disturbing for the patient.
The connection can be done as a day-case with local anaesthesia.
(2) Constricted Breast
Also called tuberous (potato-shaped) breast. This is basically a
situation when the distance between the natural crease where the
breast meets the chest wall and its upper pole is very shortened
producing an appearance of constriction. The breast droops over this
constriction. There is also a very large areola into which the
breast mass seems to prolapse. In addition the breast may be
The operation aims at making the areola smaller and corrects the
constriction with internal radial incisions on the base of the
breast. If necessary an implant may be inserted to correct a small
size, if present or to achieve better symmetry with the other
The operation is done under general anaesthesia and the results are
generally most pleasing for the patient who was, naturally,
extremely distressed with this asymmetry.
(3) Inverted Nipples
In some women the nipple is drawn inside the areola because the
little tubes (milk ducts) within it which carry milk outside are
shortened and are pulling the nipple inwards. Correction is achieved
permanently by cutting these ducts at the base of the nipple. It is
done under local anaesthesia as a day-case.
(4) Unilateral Hypoplasia
Rarely, one breast may be much smaller than its opposite fellow
producing gross asymmetry. Various gradations of the problem may
exist. Sometimes the underdevelopment of a breast may be combined
with the absence or underdevelopment of the thumb on the same side.
Correction almost always will involve the use of implants and
perhaps also deal with other potential problems like constriction,
as noted above.